- Discuss the implications of the scientific issue identified in the articles (12 marks)
The research by Riham Mohamed Aly was published in 2020, and it talks about the advancement of stem cell-based therapies in the treatment of complex disorders in the world. Stakeholders in modern science invest in research that will help them provide curative treatments for life-threatening conditions. Human sustainability depends on these possibilities and will significantly influence healthcare in the future. One of the implications of the scientific issue is its ability to allow tissue regeneration. According to Aly (2020), studies were conducted, and they show stem cell-based therapies can help in periodontal tissues and dental structures regeneration. It would be a significant breakthrough in the field of dentistry as it means the treatment will soon be available to needy patients. The concept behind the technology is that stem cells can be injected into the affected body region and would contribute to a natural healing process. The cells help trigger the growth of tissues and enable them to restore their psychological functions. The therapy would also apply to other malignancies such as heart diseases, responsible for millions of deaths globally. However, the author indicates that extensive research needs to be conducted, which will help assess the performance of the stem cells after the transplantation process.
Another implication is the research will help in reducing the complications that come from surgery. Aly (2020) highlights that the safety of medical procedures has been an issue for patients, and stem cell therapy promotes clinical progress in the management of diseases. One interesting area where the research has been applied is in the brain. A special device is used in the transplantation of the stem cells, which would help reduce the effects of surgical procedures, some of which do not guarantee better outcomes. Besides, it would take less time for individuals to recover as there will be fewer complications from the procedure and anesthesia is not utilized. The affected area will regenerate without causing pain to the patient, and the results prove to be more effective in comparison to other medical procedures. In addition, the cost of treatment will also reduce as the patient will not need to spend more time at healthcare facilities.
- Identify the different organisations/individuals mentioned in the articles and suggest how they may have an influence on the scientific issue (6 marks)
Aly mentions WHO International Clinical Trials Registry as one of the organizations in their scientific paper. The WHO is responsible for approving all medical procedures and guaranteeing all protocols were followed by the researchers. It is globally accepted, and their input will impact the progress of a clinical trial. The modalities need to be safe for human use, and their involvement help in preventing unfortunate events. The registry ensures that all healthcare stakeholders can access the research details, including the progress made by individuals who went through the clinical trials. Approval by WHO will mean that stem cell-based therapies will be utilized in all global healthcare systems.
A prominent individual mentioned in the paper is Shinya Yamanka. In 2006, Shinya Yamanka documented his success in generating stem cells with similar properties to ESCs (Aly, 2020). The breakthrough completely transformed stem cell research, and other researchers identified innovative ways they could be used in medicine. Aly indicates that ethical issues were raised at the time, and people provided religious convictions on why they should not be utilized. Shinya is a critical figure in this field, and without their input, stem-cell therapy would still be in its initial stages and just seen as a general idea with the possibility of providing modality to existing medical challenges.
- Discuss whether article 3 has made valid judgements. In your answer you should consider:
- how the article has interpreted and analysed the scientific information to support the conclusions/judgments being made
• the validity and reliability of data
• references to other sources of information. (12 marks)
The publication has clearly construed and analyzed the scientific evidence on stem cell-based therapies. The author did a great job highlighting the hierarchy of stem cells, the history of the technology, therapeutic translation, its use in managing neurodegenerative and ocular diseases, and its use in treating diabetes and dentistry. The arguments are valid. However, Aly fails to mention some of the limitations of the technology. Mentioning that would help a reader interested in knowing about stem cell-based therapies and why they are not available for utilization in the healthcare system.
Data reliability and validity are critical to any research. Other researchers can determine the appropriateness of the research based on these elements. The author relied on other published articles to inform their research. It would be challenging to determine the validity and reliability of the research since no primary data was collected. However, the researcher utilized current research to reference their article. The source of information is good as they focus on different domains under stem cell-based therapies.
- Suggest potential areas for further development and/or research of the scientific issue from the three articles. (5 marks)
One of the potential domains of use is bone healing. The number of accidents and bone defects globally is on the rise, and this research could prove vital in the coming years. Any breakthrough will lead to the development of effective implants that could enhance the recovery rate and well-being of patients.
Another potential area of use is in heart and cancer treatment. The number of people experiencing malignant growth is rising, and they could be helping in providing treatment. It would especially benefit the young children and adolescents who are affected by the condition and risk being robbed away of their lives at a tender age. Considering that individuals will experience fewer side effects, there will be a low possibility of other health problems emerging. The development will significantly contribute to sustaining the healthcare system, which has been affected by these conditions for a long time and risks being paralyzed.
- Variable question, but will involve writing a summary of some aspect of the scientific issue for a particular audience (scientists, professional non-scientists, general public). (15 marks)
What would be your reaction today if you heard that there is a viable treatment for diabetes, heart conditions, cancer and other complex health conditions? Stem cell-based therapies are a promising technology that will prove significant in the future. A high number of people continue to be affected by these conditions, and they are the cause of millions of death annually. You or I can be the next victim unless we take action right now. One of the challenges facing stem cell-based therapies research is a shortage of funding. As professionals in different fields, scientists would need your help sourcing funding from like-minded companies and government institutions. The technology could be advanced by providing adequate resources for promising research. The funding would go a long way to help many people, and in one way or another, it would benefit you or your loved one. Another issue in the research is regulatory issues. Political events influence public opinion and religious perspectives on technology. Some of the ethical considerations are unproven and limit the progress researchers make in finding viable stem cell-based solutions. Good regulations will help eliminate potential issues researchers face and guarantee better outcomes for humanity.
Aly, R. M. (2020). Current state of stem cell-based therapies: an overview. Stem cell