As adolescents separate from their parents and gain a sense of control, sometimes they are unable to balance stresses. As a result, depression may occur, and, at times, suicide may be the outcome. Choose the topic of either adolescent depression or adolescent suicide. Discuss contributing factors and signs and symptoms that may be observed or assessed in these clients. Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary methods of health prevention for this topic. Research community and state resources and describe at least two of these for your chosen topic. What nursing interventions could you use to assist an adolescent you suspect is depressed beyond referring the adolescent to a state or community resource?
Implanted Electrodes Unlike ECT, implanting electrodes requires surgery but allows for electrical stimulation of precisely targeted brain regions. In some studies, depressed patients who hadn’t benefited from drug therapy and ECT improved when a specific brain region was stimulated (Mayberg et al., 2005; Sartorius et al., 2010). Stimulating pleasure centers in the brains of another group of patients also relieved depression (Schlaepfer et al., 2008). Also, unlike ECT, implanted electrodes can be used to treat disorders other than depression, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (Haq et al., 2010).
Electrical stimulation of the brain is one of several methods used to investigate the brain’s inner workings. For more information, see Chapter 2, pages 60–63.
Psychosurgery Psychosurgery (any surgical alteration of the brain) is the most extreme medical treatment. The oldest and most radical psycho- surgery is the lobotomy. In prefrontal lobotomy, the frontal lobes are surgically disconnected from other brain areas. This procedure was supposed to calm persons who didn’t respond to any other type of treatment.