The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D scale) is often utilized to measure depressive symptomology (Radloff, 1977). It is a self-assessment that is completed by the individual. The CES-D contains 20-items rated on a 4-point scale (0 = Rarely or None of the Time to 3 = Most or All of the Time). The phrase “Within the past week did you…” prefaces the questions in order to emphasize recent depressive mood. Scores are summed and can range from 0 to 60. Traditionally, individuals with scores over 16 are identified as “depressed” (Weissman, et al., 1977), though due to high false positive rates, a score of 27 is considered a more useful cut-off (Zich, et al., 1990). The full scale can be accessed at: http://www.chcr.brown.edu/pcoc/cesdscale.pdf. Items 4, 8, 12, and 16 are reversed to avoid “yay-saying” or “nay saying” (Radloff, 1977). Several studies have validated four subscales across a variety of subgroups (i.e., depressive affect, well-being, somatic, and interpersonal) (Gliem & Gliem, 200
are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.