Based on: Dennis Tedlock and Barbara Tedlock, editors. Teachings from the American Earth: Indian Religion and Philosophy – Introduction (pp. xi-xxiv); – Isaac Tens, through Marius Barbeau, “The Career of a Medicine-Man” (Ch. 1); – Black Elk, through Joseph Epes Brown, “Hanblecheyapi: Crying for a Vision” (Ch. 3); Prompt: Introduction and Ch. 1: Consider: What is a shaman? What is a shaman’s relationship to the community? What is a shaman’s relationship to spirits? How does one “decide” to become a shaman? What are the stages of shamanic initiation? What is meant by the term “wounded healer”? Why is initiatory illness a prerequisite? How does the shaman’s body transform as a result of initiation? Why did Isaac Tens eventually give up his vocation? What are the spiritual implications of that choice? Ch. 3: Consider: What is a medicine man? What is the relationship between the individual, the spirits, the community, and the medicine elders? Why are suffering and sacrifice so important in the vocations of shamans and medicine men? What is the purpose of the vision quest? Why is the sacred pipe (canupa) considered sacred and how does this differ from the Hollywood version of the ‘peace pipe’? Instructions: Select a specific theme to explore, using the italicized discussion topics as prompts for your paper. Refer to the additional discussion questions for ideas in formulating your discussion. Basically, you will explain the phenomenon and discuss how it contributes to our understanding of a particular tribal religious worldview. Select one particular reading as your focus, and indicate that at the top of your paper. To enhance your discussion, refer to other readings on similar topics in the unit and feel free to quote from those as well. Specifications: Write 3-4 pages and incorporate at least three quotes from the reading(s). Cite your sources and provide proper documentation, using MLA format. Papers will be graded for attentiveness to the questions posed, depth of original thought, obvious engagement with the material, accuracy in grammatical and mechanical form, proper use of documentation, and excellence in overall presentation. Note: Please only use the reading as a source and kindly do not use internet resources.